“Uzbekistan takes a legitimate pride inits mineral wealthwhere practically all element of the well-knownMendeleev periodic table have been found. As of today, here more than 2,700 of deposits and prospective displays of various minerals are explored, including some one hundred kinds of mineral raw materials, of which over 60 are being developed.”
I. A. Karimov
Uzbekistan’s transition to the market system necessitated detailed study of enterprises’ practice of economic activity in the changed conditions. In the first place, it applies to the mineral and raw material industry, which occupies basic place in modern economy of many states.
JSC ‘Almalyk Mining-Metallurgical Complex’ is a leading world producer, with its production capacity being based on the reserves of a group of copper-molybdenum, lead-zinc, and gold-silver deposits on the territories of Uzbekistan’s Tashkent, Dzhizzak, Namangan, and Surkhandarya Regions.
Today JSC ‘Almalyk MMC’, by its mining and treatment of noble and non-ferrous metals ore, is a multiple industrial complex, which consists seven open mines, four underground gold mines, five concentration plants, two metallurgical plants, sulfuric acid production facilities, repair-mechanical and limestone works, motor transport board with its six motor pools; railway service, heat station, industrial water supply, electrical network board, explosive material plant, board of specialized repair work, trust of ‘Olmalikmetallurgkurilish’, consumer’s production facilities, - with multistage technological and management structures, as well as more than twenty auxiliary production and attendant services, with the developed social structure.
The Almalyk area since ancient times has been a place of mining field. Numerous excavations and traces of ancient diggers activity, dated 9th to 12th centuries A.D., can be seen everywhere and speak about intensive mining of copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, iron as well as amethyst, calaite and other minerals here in ancient times. Virtually, all the ore deposits, the Complex develops, were discovered by traces of ancient excavations.
The Complex’ raw material base, beside the reserves of the deposits which are being mined, includes also non-traditional resources such as mines’ dumps, concentration tails, and metallurgical waste. The raw material reserves, concentrated in the anthropogenic mineral objects, come to hundreds millions tons, and can be used as an additional source for obtaining metals and other products.
The area’s deposits are characterized by high complexity. Currently, the mineral list includes 179 names. About 60 of them apply to ore minerals. The following so called ‘Through minerals’ characterize all deposits: native gold, molybdenite, pyrrotine, pyrite, bornite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galenete, hematite – them being actually bearers of noble metals, as well as of rare and trace elements.
The copper-porphyritic gold and molybdenum-bearing deposits Kalmakir and Sari-Cheku provide raw materials for the Complex’ copper line, where the Kalmakir ore are treated at the Copper concentrator, the Sari-Cheku ore are treated at the Copper concentrator 2, and the concentrates of both of them are treated at the Copper smelter.
To load with work the Zinc smelter, the Complex treats tolling-based zinc concentrates with obtaining metal zinc and cadmium, refined lead and sulfuric acid. The gold mining and treatment facilities are represented by the Kauldy mine, Angren ore management, Chadak ore management, Angren and Chadak gold extraction plants, whose products go to Copper smelter for further treatment.
To provide the technological process with lime, the reserves of the Saukbulak limestone deposit are mined. Construction materials are gravel-pebble quarries of Almalyk and Transportny. The study of many years of copper reserves at the Kalmakir deposit, considering the Dalneye deposit area, has resulted in about 20 mln tons, and that made it possible to rank the raw materials base of the Almalyk Mining-Metallurgical Complex as one of the world largest ones.
All ore mining and treatment processes are highly mechanized. The Complex’ mines and plants use hundreds of units of various mining and metallurgical equipment.
The Complex mines annually over 31 mln tons ore and rock, from which 15 chemical elements are recovered. The Complex’ finished products are refined copper (cathodes), zinc pig metal, burned molybdenum intermediate product, metallic cadmium. Industrial selenium and tellurium, as well as sulfuric acid and copper sulfate. Considerable part of the products, which are being realized, accounts for copper, refined gold and silver.
Thus, increase of effectiveness in the ore mining and treatment facilities at Uzbekistan’s OJSC ‘Almalyk MMC’ in today’s conditions has become possible as a result of cost optimization and cutting to get finished products, and due to introduction of new alternative technologies and equipment, which promoted bottlenecks removal and productivity increase.